In part because the powers of Congress and the president have been widely interpreted, most of the agreements proposed as treaties could have been proposed as executive agreements of Congress. That`s why the U.S. government has often chosen to use congressional executive agreements over treaties for controversial agreements that are unlikely to get the super-majority required in the Senate. The 1992 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreement by which the United States became members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 are examples of controversial proposals that are dealt with in the form of agreements between Congress and the executive branch. The advent of the party system has also caused unexpected problems with the method of electing the president. In 1796, John Adams (1797-1801), the federalist party`s candidate, the presidency, and Thomas Jefferson (1801-09), the candidate of the Democratic Republican Party, won the vice-presidency; Instead of working with Adams, Jefferson tried to undermine the administration. To avoid the possibility of another divided executive, federalist and Republican Democrats, the two main parties of the early Republic nominated candidates for the presidency and vice presidency in 1800. Because of the party`s election and the fact that voters were unable to give preference to the presidency or vice presidency between the two candidates for which they had voted, The Democratic-Republican candidates Jefferson and Aaron Burr received the same number of votes. Elections were launched in the House of Representatives and a constitutional crisis almost erupted when the House of Representatives was deadlocked. On February 17, 1801, Jefferson was finally elected speaker by the House of Representatives and, with the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment, which began in 1804, voters had to vote separately for the President and Vice-President. The executive also includes independent regulators such as the Federal Reserve System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. These agencies are governed by commissions appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate (commissioners must not be removed by the president), these agencies protect the public interest by imposing rules and settling disputes over federal regulations. Government companies (for example.
B the Tennessee Valley Authority, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and the U.S. Postal Service) that provide consumer services that could be provided by private companies and independent executive agencies (z.B the Central Agency, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) make up the rest of the federal government. However, this lax construction is mitigated in two important ways. First, Sections 2 and 3 of Article II break down some of the President`s powers, including the powers of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the appointment, contracting, reception of ambassadors and convening congress in a special session. If the section of the first article had been designed as an indeterminate authorization, these subsequent specifications would not have made sense. Second, Congress, not the President, has been endowed with a considerable number of powers that are traditionally executive-related, including the power to declare war, write letters of marks and retaliation, lend money and lend money, and the power to make appointments and contracts has been shared between the President and the Senate.